From lead Acid to Li-Ion cells, we can evaluate both batteries and battery packs.
The primary standard we use for this testing is UN/DOT 38.3. Sections 1 through 5 apply to all samples and are tested in this order:
T1 – Altitude Simulation This is low pressure testing that simulates unpressurized airplane space (cargo area) at 15,000 meter altitude. After storing batteries at 11.6kPa for >6 hours, these criteria shall be met: no mass loss, leaking, venting, disassembly, rupture or ﬁre, and voltage within 10% of pre-test voltage.
T2 – Thermal Test This test covers changes in temperature extremes from -40C to +75C. Batteries are stored for 6 hours at -40C (12 hours for large cells/batteries), then 6 hours at +75C (12 hours for large cells/batteries), for a total of 10 cycles. Testing may be performed in a single chamber or thermal shock chamber, but less than 30 minute transitions shall be used. Same pass criteria as T1.
T3 – Vibration This test simulates vibration during transportation. Test is a Sine Sweep: 7Hz – 200Hz – 7Hz in 15 Minutes; 12 Sweeps (3 hours); 3 mutually perpendicular axes. Same pass criteria as T1.
T4 – Shock This test also simulates vibration during transportation. Test is a Half-Sine pulse: 150G/6ms for small cells/batteries; 50G/11ms for large cells/batteries; 3 pulses per direction; 6 directions (+/-z, +/-x, +/-y). Same pass criteria as T1.
T5 – External Short Circuit This test simulates an external short to the terminals of the cell or battery. At temperature of +55C, apply short circuit (<0.1ohm) across terminals. Maintain at least an hour after sample temperature returns to +55 +/-2°C. Pass criteria are: Case temperature does not exceed +170°C and no disassembly, rupture, or ﬁre within 6 hours of test. Fuse, current limiting circuit, and venting mechanism activation are allowable.
The following Sections MAY apply to your product:
T6 – Impact This test is only applicable to primary and secondary cells. For cylindrical cells >20mm diameter, it simulates impact to case of cell. For cylindrical cells <20mm diameter and all other cell constructions, it simulates crushing of a cell. Pass criteria for any type is: Case temperature does not exceed +170C & no disassembly or ﬁre within 6 hours of test.
T7 – Overcharge This test is for secondary or rechargeable batteries only. It simulates an overcharge condition on a rechargeable battery: 2x the manufacturer’s recommended charge current for 24 hours. Then battery shall be monitored for 7 days for ﬁre or disassembly.
T8 – Forced Discharge This testing simulates a forced discharge condition for primary and secondary cells only. Same pass criteria as T7.